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Sous-titres : Anglais

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Approx. 37 heures pour terminer

Recommandé : 8 weeks of study; 4–5 hours/week...


Sous-titres : Anglais

Programme du cours : ce que vous apprendrez dans ce cours

1 heure pour terminer

Course Orientation

The series of videos and readings provided here are aimed at introducing this course in Lactation Biology. Course organization is described. Requirements for participation in the course are summarized. And, opportunities for learners to engage in the course content, as well as with each other, are indicated.

2 vidéos (Total 10 min), 5 lectures, 2 quiz
2 vidéos
Lactation Word Cloud2 min
5 lectures
Course Syllabus10 min
About the Discussion Forums1 min
Social Media5 min
Updating Your Profile5 min
Study Aid Activities Overview5 min
2 exercices pour s'entraîner
Orientation Quiz5 min
Demographics Survey26 min
1 heure pour terminer

Module 1: Introduction to Lactation Biology

In this module, we will introduce some basic definitions of terms related to the biology of lactation, provide an overview of milk, and briefly introduce the phylogenetic organization and evolution of mammals. Learning the definitions will be important for establishing a baseline vocabulary that will help reduce confusion about topics presented in subsequent videos. Milk, a primary product of the lactation process, will be introduced in an effort to provide a foundation for later modules in which milk and milk composition are explored in greater depth. The series of videos about mammals collectively offer a brief overview of the wide spectrum of these animal species, as well as some thoughts on how lactation came to be an integral part of the reproductive strategy of those species.

8 vidéos (Total 58 min), 2 lectures, 2 quiz
8 vidéos
Definitions Part 27 min
An Overview of Milk5 min
How Much Milk?4 min
Milk Products6 min
Mammals10 min
Mammalian Evolution5 min
Why Lactate?9 min
2 lectures
Module 1 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aids5 min
2 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 1-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 1-3 Quiz10 min
4 heures pour terminer

Module 2: Mammary Gland Structure

One of the most fundamental requirements for understanding any aspect of biology is to appreciate the relationships that exist between form and function, or anatomy and physiology. In the case of lactation and the mammary gland, it is important to be able to visualize the various levels of mammary gland structure in order to understand how the mammary gland grows and functions. This module presents an overview of mammary gland anatomy and macrostructure using the dairy cow as our primary example. In addition, the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels of mammary structure are presented. The module provides a conceptual foundation that will allow you to individually explore mammary gland anatomy and microstructure in other mammalian species.

19 vidéos (Total 130 min), 2 lectures, 5 quiz
19 vidéos
Mammary Lobes6 min
Simple vs Complex Glands4 min
Mammary Anatomy at the Cow Side10 min
Mammary Suspensory System9 min
Median Suspensory Ligament2 min
Structure of Teats and Cisterns6 min
Supernumerary Teats4 min
Mammary Blood System10 min
Mammary Lymph System6 min
Mammary Nervous System3 min
Introduction to Mammary Microstructure6 min
Microstructure - 2D and 3D8 min
Lobules5 min
More on Lobules9 min
Alveoli and Their Environment7 min
Myoepithelial Cells5 min
Mammary Cell Ultrastructure Part 18 min
Mammary Cell Ultrastructure Part 25 min
2 lectures
Module 2 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aids5 min
5 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 2-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 2-2 Quiz12 min
Lesson 2-3 Quiz10 min
Lesson 2-4 Quiz10 min
Week 1 Quiz30 min
5 heures pour terminer

Module 3: Milk Composition

Milk is the product of the lactation process. Such a simple statement does not come close to doing justice to the complex nature of this biological fluid. In this module, we explore the major components of milk, as well as provide a basis for understanding milk as a product that we purchase in a store. Mechanisms of synthesis of milk components are introduced. And, several videos include discussions of the nature of differences in milk composition among mammalian species, including comparisons of cow milk with human milk.

27 vidéos (Total 178 min), 2 lectures, 7 quiz
27 vidéos
Milk Components Demo2 min
Perspectives on Milk Composition7 min
Milk Under the Microscope5 min
Major Milk Fractions5 min
From Cow to Store10 min
Total Solids4 min
Lactose7 min
Lactose Intolerance4 min
Lactose Synthesis8 min
Milk Protein4 min
Casein8 min
Casein Demo5 min
Whey Proteins9 min
Milk Protein Synthesis8 min
Milk Fat4 min
Fatty Acids6 min
Milk Fat - Species Comparisons5 min
Milk Fat Synthesis15 min
Milk Minerals10 min
Milk Vitamins2 min
Cells in Milk6 min
More on Milk Cells1 min
Milk Bioactive Factors8 min
Species Comparisons of Milk7 min
Cow vs. Human Milk Composition5 min
Wrapping Up Milk Composition4 min
2 lectures
Module 3 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aid5 min
7 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 3-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 3-2 Quiz10 min
Lesson 3-3 Quiz10 min
Lesson 3-4 Quiz10 min
Lesson 3-5 Quiz10 min
Lesson 3-6 Quiz10 min
Week 2 Quiz30 min
3 heures pour terminer

Module 4: Mammary Gland Development

The tissue that we know of as the mammary gland (or udder or breast) may appear as relatively uncomplicated compared with some internal organs such as the heart or brain. The gland is outside the body wall, has a nipple or teat in most species, and has a series of ducts by which milk that is produced in microscopic blind tubes can be expressed from the gland. How can such a gland develop and what regulates that development? It turns out that the initial stage of development occurs extremely early in the fetal development of the animal. It then proceeds through a series of developmental phases, many of which are closely linked with the reproductive functioning of the animal, and eventually leading to the time when the gland is producing milk. Furthermore, the mammary gland is one of a few tissues that undergoes repeated cycles of development, functioning, regression, and redevelopment, again associated with the reproductive cycles of the animal. This module describes the various stages of mammary development and provides the framework for understanding how these stages relate to each other, as well as to the functionality of the gland.

11 vidéos (Total 79 min), 2 lectures, 4 quiz
11 vidéos
Fetal Stage - 26 min
Fetal Stage - 36 min
Prepubertal Stage - 17 min
Prepubertal Stage - 23 min
Postpubertal Stage7 min
Development During Pregnancy - 12 min
Development During Pregnancy - 26 min
Development During Pregnancy - 35 min
Lactation7 min
Bovine Mammary Development13 min
2 lectures
Module 4 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aid5 min
4 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 4-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 4-2 Quiz10 min
Lesson 4-3 Quiz10 min
Week 3 Quiz30 min
5 heures pour terminer

Module 5: Mother & Neonate

The peripartum period, the time shortly before, during, and after giving birth, is a time of rapid changes in the mammary gland, the mother, and the neonate. Extensive physiological coordination occurs between the processes leading up to and giving birth, the formation of colostrum, the initiation of lactation in the mammary gland, and the subsequent removal of milk by the neonate. In this module, we explore how the mammary gland changes around the time of giving birth when the gland transitions from a non-lactating to a lactating state. Part of this transition is the production of colostrum, the first mammary secretion produced by the gland after giving birth. Another part of the transition is the changing regulation of mammary gland function from one being driven primarily by hormones associated with pregnancy and parturition to one where milk removal, by the neonate or milking machine, is the driving force in gland function after birth. In this module, we examine some basic characteristics of the neonate, how lactation is initiated (lactogenesis), and the formation and special components of colostrum (immunoglobulins) and their impact on the neonate.

17 vidéos (Total 124 min), 2 lectures, 7 quiz
17 vidéos
A Cow Calving3 min
The Neonate8 min
Lactogenesis & Its Stages7 min
Secretory Differentiation8 min
Secretory Activation & Lactose Synthesis7 min
Hormonal Regulation5 min
Comparative Hormonal Regulation7 min
Prolactin - Sources4 min
Prolactin - Control of Secretion5 min
Prolactin - Other Regulation5 min
Colostrum Composition12 min
Immunoglobulins in Colostrum6 min
Colostrum & the Neonate10 min
Immunoglobulin Receptor6 min
Mammary Transport of Immunoglobulin7 min
Immunoglobulin Transport to the Neonate6 min
2 lectures
Module 5 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aid5 min
6 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 5-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 5-2 Quiz10 min
Lesson 5-3 Quiz10 min
Lesson 5-4 Quiz10 min
Lesson 5-5 Quiz10 min
Week 4 Quiz30 min
5 heures pour terminer

Module 6: Lactation

In this module, we explore the many facets of lactation as a complex physiological process. We will find that removal of the milk in the gland is critical to continued production of that fluid. The interactions between milk removal, the systemic factors stimulating the gland to produce milk, such as several hormones, and the local factors that inhibit further milk secretion are examined. Some of the effects of milk removal, as well as the absence of milk removal, are discussed in this series of videos. The responses of the mammary gland to milk removal provide a means of understanding the impact of management practices on lactation.

27 vidéos (Total 214 min), 2 lectures, 5 quiz
27 vidéos
Systemic vs Local Regulation10 min
Galactogogues8 min
Prolactin5 min
Measurement of Milk Production7 min
Prolactin - Nonruminants9 min
Prolactin - Ruminants 16 min
Prolactin - Ruminants 29 min
Growth Hormone - Cows8 min
Growth Hormone - Rats10 min
Other Hormones9 min
Feedback Inhibition of Milk Secretion10 min
Frequency of Milk Removal5 min
Cisternal vs Alveolar Milk Pools7 min
Frequency of Milk Removal - Cows6 min
Determinants of Milk Yield6 min
Intensity of Milk Removal9 min
Milk Stasis4 min
Mammary Secretions During Involution10 min
Mammary Tissue During Involution8 min
Dry Period9 min
Persistency & Relactation10 min
Mammary Involution - Sows9 min
Compensatory Milk Production9 min
Lactational History - Cows3 min
Lactational History - Sows5 min
Lactational History - Rats6 min
2 lectures
Module 6 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aid5 min
5 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 6-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 6-2 Quiz10 min
Lesson 6-3 Quiz10 min
Lesson 6-4 Quiz10 min
Week 5 Quiz30 min
2 heures pour terminer

Module 7: Milk Ejection

This module introduces the physiological process known as the milk ejection reflex. The neural and endocrine pathways of this process are discussed, as is a broad overview of the hormone responsible for milk ejection, oxytocin. In addition, the consequences of ineffective milk ejection and ways that have been tried to manipulate the milk ejection process are presented.

15 vidéos (Total 95 min), 2 lectures, 3 quiz
15 vidéos
Neuroendocrine Reflex5 min
Timing of Milk Ejection4 min
Rise in Intramammary Pressure3 min
Mammary Structure Changes During Ejection4 min
Microstucture of Milk Ejection2 min
Oxytocin5 min
Sources of Oxytocin10 min
Other Functions of Oxytocin4 min
Residual Milk8 min
Disturbed Milk Flow9 min
Manipulation of Milk Ejection6 min
Inhibition of Milk Ejection6 min
Species Comparisons9 min
Milk Ejection Demo - Optional7 min
2 lectures
Module 7 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aid5 min
3 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 7-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 7-2 Quiz10 min
Lesson 7-3 Quiz10 min
3 heures pour terminer

Module 8: Atypical Lactation

We typically assume that development of the mammary gland and production of milk are closely regulated by and are coordinated with the reproductive functioning of the animal. Most often that is true. From the knowledge gained from other modules in this course, it is clear that mammary gland development and lactogenesis are heavily regulated by hormones. As it turns out, the presence of mammary gland-regulating hormones is not always directly associated with the reproductive status of the animal. If the hormone activity is present, regardless of its source, it may impact mammary gland development and function. The series of videos in this module presents an overview of what we are calling atypical lactation. That is when the mammary gland undergoes development and lactation in the absence of the usual physiological cues that we associate with the process, such as an animal giving birth.

7 vidéos (Total 74 min), 2 lectures, 3 quiz
7 vidéos
Estrogen5 min
Phytoestrogen7 min
Zearalenone7 min
Elevated Prolactin14 min
Relactation, Allosucking, Communal Nursing12 min
Lactation in Males15 min
2 lectures
Module 8 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aid5 min
2 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 8-1 Quiz10 min
Week 6 Quiz30 min
6 heures pour terminer

Module 9: Mastitis

The mammary gland is an excretory gland, meaning that it produces a fluid that is secreted to the outside of the body. These secretions leave the gland through a series of ducts that eventually open to the outside of the skin. The presence of these openings not only means that the mammary secretion can leave the gland, it also means that microorganisms can enter the gland. When that happens, the gland may become infected and present as a disease known as mastitis. Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland, the inflammation most commonly being caused by an infection by a pathogen. Mastitis is the most costly disease in dairy cattle, but is also prevalent in other species, including our own. We will examine many of the aspects of how this disease is manifested using the dairy cow as our primary example in this module. We will examine mastitis at the level of an individual cow, as well as at the whole herd level. And then to fully integrate and apply the knowledge gained about this disease, we will examine several real-life cases of herd-level mastitis problems faced by dairy producers.

19 vidéos (Total 189 min), 3 lectures, 6 quiz
19 vidéos
Milk Components5 min
Host-Agent-Environment3 min
First Line of Defense6 min
Inflammatory Response11 min
Detection8 min
Treatment & Control8 min
Prevention10 min
Mastitis Syndromes11 min
Mastitis Types7 min
Contagious Pathogens7 min
Environmental Pathogens6 min
Other Pathogens5 min
Mastitis at a Herd-Level8 min
Contagious vs Environmental5 min
Milking Procedure9 min
Mastitis Example Case 120 min
Mastitis Example Case 224 min
Mastitis Example Case 319 min
3 lectures
Module 9 Overview5 min
Optional: Study Aid5 min
Mastitis Cases Answers5 min
5 exercices pour s'entraîner
Lesson 9-1 Quiz10 min
Lesson 9-2 Quiz10 min
Lesson 9-3 Quiz10 min
Lesson 9-4 Quiz10 min
Week 7 Quiz30 min
4 heures pour terminer

Module 10: Comparative Lactation

In this module, we provide a series of videos that expands what has already been learned in other modules about the basic principles of lactation biology to a range of mammalian species. These videos focus on these animals in their native state, as well as some that have been domesticated for use as dairy animals and domestic livestock. This module is optional.

21 vidéos (Total 188 min), 2 lectures, 1 quiz
21 vidéos
Swine Lactation: Mammary Anatomy & Development10 min
Swine Lactation: Milk Composition7 min
Swine Lactation: Lactogenesis & Early Lactation11 min
Swine Lactation: Milk Production7 min
Swine Lactation: Milk Removal & Sucking Intensity8 min
Swine Lactation: Milk Ejection9 min
Swine Lactation: Mammary Involution8 min
Swine Lactation: Prolactin & Lactation14 min
Swine Lactation: Lactational History11 min
Swine Lactation: Mastitis 19 min
Swine Lactation: Mastitis 210 min
Swine Lactation: Mastitis 36 min
Elephant Lactation 111 min
Elephant Lactation 210 min
Dairy Goats: Farm Introduction7 min
Dairy Goats: The Kids5 min
Dairy Goats: The Does2 min
Dairy Goats: Milking Parlor and Procedures5 min
Dairy Goats: Cheese Introduction7 min
Dairy Goats: Making Cheese11 min
2 lectures
Module 10 Overview5 min
Solutions to Crossword Puzzles10 min
1 exercice pour s'entraîner
End of Course Survey52 min
4 avisChevron Right


a bénéficié d'un avantage concret dans sa carrière grâce à ce cours


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Principaux examens pour Lactation Biology

par MTMar 1st 2019

was great course would love to see a little more of human lactation in here to compare with. i enjoyed the corse just getting grading was slow.



Dr. Walter Hurley, PhD

Professor Emeritus
Department of Animal Sciences

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