学习必需的技术技能，从而掌握分析财务报表和披露财务信息用于财务分析的能力，并了解会计标准和高管层激励对财务报告流程的影响。学完本课程后，您将学会阅读三种最常见的财务报表：利润表、资产负债表和现金收支一览表。然后，您可以运用所学技能处理现实商务挑战，这也是沃顿商学院商务基础专项课程的组成部分。

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En provenance du cours de University of Pennsylvania

财务会计概论（中文版）

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学习必需的技术技能，从而掌握分析财务报表和披露财务信息用于财务分析的能力，并了解会计标准和高管层激励对财务报告流程的影响。学完本课程后，您将学会阅读三种最常见的财务报表：利润表、资产负债表和现金收支一览表。然后，您可以运用所学技能处理现实商务挑战，这也是沃顿商学院商务基础专项课程的组成部分。

À partir de la leçon

第 1 周：简介和资产负债表

学习会计学就像学习一门外语，您要做大量基础练习（语法、句法、习语等）。 要阅读以这门“外语”（我们以财务报表为例）书写的书籍，您必须掌握本材料中介绍的基础知识。 我们从本周开始学习这些基础知识。 我们首先要学习的是财务报表概述。 需要使用哪些类型的报表？ 规则由谁制定？ 规则由谁实施？ 然后，我们将介绍资产负债表等式并定义/探讨资产、负债和股东权益。 我们将介绍借贷记账，并做许多将交易“翻译”成借项和贷项的练习。最后，我们将通过一家创业公司的案例，帮助您深入了解从记录新公司首笔交易开始，到制作首套财务报表全程必需的所有环节。

- Brian J BusheeThe Geoffrey T. Boisi Professor

Accounting

Hello, I'm Professor Brian Bushee, and welcome back.

In this video, we'll take a look at the one rule of grammar in the accounting

language, the balance sheet equation.

We'll see how the balance sheet equation makes all the financial statements

fit together.

We'll also use the balance sheet equation to solve some problems where we're missing

one piece of information.

But we can fill in everything that we do know into the balance sheet equation and

solve for what we need.

Hope you'll enjoy the video.

So if you've ever tried to learn a foreign language, you know that one of the most

difficult things is learning all the rules of grammar.

All the cases and declensions and the changes in verb endings and

all that stuff.

Well, the good news about learning the languages of accounting

is that there's only one rule of grammar.

The balance sheet equation or the accounting identity.

This is that assets equal liabilities plus stockholders' equity

at all points in time.

Another way to say this as we've talked about is that either resources of

the company equal the claims on those resources by the outsiders and

by the owners.

>> Can you give me an example of when this is used in the real world?

>> A good example to think about how we use the balance sheet equation in real

life is when we buy something big like a house or a car.

So let's say we wanted to buy a $500,000 house.

But we only had 50,000 dollars of cash.

What we would need to go out and

borrow 450,000 dollars from the bank and a mortgage in order to buy the house.

Then after we bought it, we do have 500,000 in assets,

the house which is equal to the 450,000 of liabilities.

The mortgage plus $50,000 in equity which is how much cash we put in and

which represents our claim on that house.

The most important feature of the balance sheet equation is that it must always

balance.

And that's why we're talk about something called double-entry bookkeeping.

If you increase something on one side of the equation, you have to increase or

decrease something else to stay in balance.

So there has to be at least two entries any time you

tinker with the balance sheet equation.

And as we'll see, the changes between two balance sheets are going to be summarized

in the Income Statement, the Statement of Stockholders' Equity, and

the Statement of Cash Flows.

So let me show you this graphically.

So let's say we have a balance sheet at the end of December 31, 2014.

Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders' Equity.

We'll split the assets into Cash and Noncash assets.

And we'll split Stockholders' equity into Contributed Capital and Retained Earnings,

which are concepts we'll talk more about in later videos.

Then we have a Balance Sheet at the end of the year.

So we've got one at the beginning of 2015, at the the end of 2015.

The difference in the retained earnings is going to be explained in the income

statement for the year ended December 31, 2015.

And the difference in cash is going to be explained in

the statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2015.

>> Here you go again with the difference between income and cash.

Remind me, why are they different?

>> Okay, let's go back to the house example.

So let's say on your first balance sheet at the beginning of the year,

you have a 500,000 house which is your asset.

$450,000 mortgage which is your liability.

And 50,000 of equity.

Now let's say that during the year,

the value of your house increases to $1 million.

And you can't actually do this in practice but for

the sake of the example, let's assume you could write up the value of the house

from 500,000 to a million at the end of the year.

So your balance sheet at the end of the year would have a million

dollar asset, the house.

450,000 of liabilities, because the mortgage doesn't change.

But your equity would go up from 50,000 to 550,000.

Now, if we look at the statements

that explain the changes in two balance sheet, none of this affects the cash flow

statement because there's no cash impact of your house going up in value.

In fact, your cash actually probably went down as you were paying the mortgage, but

your income statement would show a gain of $500,000 from the increase in your

equity due to your ownership claim of the house.

>> Housing prices going up?

Can you give us a more contemporary example?

>> Okay, so let's talk about what happened during the financial crisis of 2007,

2008, and 2009.

There were banks out there that had assets called mortgage-backed securities.

These are assets because they're claims on collecting cash payments from

people that took out subprime mortgages.

So let's say a bank had 10 billion of these mortgage-backed securities

as assets.

And let's say they had 9.5 billion of liabilities, and half a billion of equity.

Financial crisis hits, these homeowners no longer make their mortgage payments

which means these assets drop in value.

So now they have to be written down in value from 10 billion to

let's say 1 billion.

Now the liabilities don't change, in fact that's why you need a government bail out

because your liabilities don't change.

But what does change is the equity.

The equity drops by 9 billion as well.

And so it's another example where there's no

cash flow impact of the change in these two balance sheets.

But we end up showing a $9 billion loss on our income statement due to the drop

in our equity claims on those assets.

Of course, we also have to mention the statement of stockholders' equity,

which explains the changes in stockholders' equity between

two balance sheets, which we will talk about more later in the course.

What I want to do next is show you how everything that we are going to talk about

fits into this balance sheet equation.

So we talked about how stock holder's equity is two components.

Contributed capital which is the money that we raise from shareholders.

And retained earnings which is what we create by operating the business.

Retained earnings is going to equal whatever retained earnings were at

the beginning of the period, plus any net income earned during the period,

minus any dividends paid out to shareholders.

Now that's why it's called retained earnings, because it's the earnings or

net income, less any dividends paid out.

And then net income, as we talked about in a prior video, is revenues minus expenses.

So if we put all of this into the balance sheet equation,

we get one big complete balance sheet equation.

Which is assets equal liabilities plus contributed capital,

plus your prior retained earnings, plus revenues,

minus expenses, minus dividends that you pay during the period.

[FOREIGN] Are you going to make us do some mathematics with this?

>> Why yes, I am going to ask you to do some math.

Now I'm going to give you some problems, give you a chance to try to answer

the problems and then we'll talk through the answers.

After I read the problem you'll see a little pause icon on the screen.

If you want to try to answer the problem before you give me the answer, pause

the video at this point, try to come up with the answer and then resume the video.

But if you wanted just roll through and

hear the answer right away then it's okay to keep the video going.

This is the beginning in the procedure that we follow anytime that I give you

some questions that I wanted you to try to answer during the video lecture.

Okay. Here's the first one.

Assets equal 100, liabilities equal 50, what is stockholders' equity?

We can solve this one with a balance sheet equation.

We know that assets are 100.

Liabilities are 50.

The only thing that's missing is stockholders' equity, which has to be 50.

So that we have 100 on the left hand side, and 100 on the right hand side.

Next, liabilities increase by 100 and stockholders' equity is unchanged.

What is the change in assets?

Again, we can use the balance sheet equation to answer this, but

now we're looking at changes in the numbers.

So stockholders' equity is unchanged, liabilities go up by 100, the only way for

the equation to stay in balance is for assets to also go up by 100.

Next, all non-cash assets are 70, total liabilities are 60,

total stockholders' equity is 30, what is cash?

We can use the Balance Sheet equation for

this one if we separate assets into cash and non-cash assets.

So we have liabilities of 60 and stockholders' equity of 30.

That's 90 on the right hand side.

Non-cash assets are 70.

The only thing missing is cash, which has to equal 20, so

that we have 90 on each side.

Next, cash decreases by ten, and all non-cash assets increase by 15.

What is the change in liabilities?

We can use the same equation, but we have to be a little bit careful.

We have cash going down by 10, noncash assets going up by 15.

We're looking for liabilities, but

we don't know what happened with stockholders' equity.

And because we don't know what happened with stockholders' equity,

we actually don't have enough information to solve this.

Now if we knew that stockholders' equity had not changed

then liabilities would have had to go up by five so

that we have an increase in five on both sides of the equation.

But without knowing what happened to stockholders' equity, we technically,

don't have enough information to answer this one.

>> Come on.

A trick question?

Really?

>> Sorry about the trick question but I promise that it won't be the last.

Next, we have retained earnings increasing by a hundred.

Dividends are 50.

What is net income?

Earlier in the video we looked at the equation for retained earnings,

where retained earnings is equal to prior retained earnings, what they are worth at

the beginning of the year, plus net income during the period minus dividends.

So we know that the change in retained earnings,

retained earnings minus prior retained earnings is 100.

We know that dividends is 50, so

the only thing missing is net income, which has to be 150 for this to balance.

Next, we have revenue increasing by 100.

All other categories are unchanged except assets.

What is the change in assets?

We have to use the complete balance sheet equation to solve this one, so

that we break stockholders' equity into contributed capital,

prior retained earnings, revenues, expenses, and dividends.

So we know that revenues are going up by a hundred.

Everything is unchanged but assets, which means that assets also have to go up

by 100 so that both sides of the equation increased by 100.

Finally, expenses increase by 60 and

all other categories are unchanged except cash.

What's the change in cash?

We'll again use the complete balance sheet equation but

now we'll split assets into cash and non-cash assets.

So, we know that expenses went up by 60.

Everything else is unchanged except for cash.

Now, notice on the right hand side of the equation,

expenses go up by 60 means the right hand side goes down by 60.

Which means that cash also has to go down by 60 for us to stay in balance.

>> I think I can do this.

Can we do more math problems?

>> Finally, some positive feedback.

The purpose of this exercise was to preview

the type of problem that you're going to be doing a lot in this course.

There's going to be a certain piece of information that you need.

That you're not given.

But you can take all the other information that you're given and a set of equations,

which will usually be in the form of T accounts or journal entries.

Fill in everything you know, and then solve for that one

piece of information that you need but you can't find in the financial statements.

Wow, has it been 12 minutes already?

Time sure flies when you're doing the balance sheet equation.

I'm going to go ahead and wrap up this video.

And we'll come back next time and talk in more detail about assets, liabilities, and

shareholder's equity.

I'll see you then.

>> See you next video.

[BLANK AUDIO]

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