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Confounding vs Effect Modification

This is the final module of the course. We start by discussing what happens when the effect of an exposure on an outcome differs across levels of another variable. This is called effect modification. We will discuss how to approach effect modification and we will highlight the distinction between confounding and effect modification. We will close the course by revisiting causal inference in epidemiology, discussing how we can go through all potential explanations of an association before deciding whether it is of causal nature.

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