I ended the last lesson with telling you how important engagement is to science teaching. And engagement is not only important for your students, but it's important for you as a science teacher too. Because showing engagement as a teacher really increases the student's learning processes. So how can you show engagement? You can show engagement, for example, by arriving early and staying late. So be the first in the room and be the last to leave is something where you can really connect to your students, give them the chance to ask questions that they don't want to ask in the whole group. And in the end, learn about you, not only as lecturer, learn about you as a researcher too. Another thing that is very important to show engagement is that you don't stay on one point when you teach. This is different when you're in the video now because I'm limited to move around. But when I'm in a lecture hall, for example, I'm some kind of runner. I'm walking around the lecture hall and be here, be there, be between the students. And look with them on the slide together and find out what is there. So you should control activity by being active in your classroom, for example. A very important thing is making eye contact, really looking into your students' eyes when you talk to them. You should use this not only in small classrooms, and seminars, and LED classes, but in lectures too. Because this really makes a connection to every single student, not only the ones you are looking at at this moment but to all others. Because they can expect that you'll look at them and into their eyes too. Connected to this, it's very important that you call the students by name. I know that this is a very challenging process when you have 150, 200, 600 students in front of you. So there perhaps it's not that possible, for some of us it is. I'm not the one who can remember all of the students' names, especially when I have 600 in front of me. But in smaller groups, when you have a lab class with 15, 20, 25 students, then it should be possible. And it really increases your engagement. And it increases the perceived engagement, perceived by the students. And in the end, it increases the students' engagement too. The bigger the hall, the more expressive your gestures and movements should be. Because when you have a student sitting on the last chair in the room, he or she has to see what you are doing too. And so being expressive with your movement and gestures is very important. Another very important thing to engage your students and activate them is to use humor and tell stories. Telling stories is so important because you can connect to your own life and you can connect to students' every day life. And they remember the things you are saying much more easily with stories because stories make some kind of sense in science teaching. Using humor, I know that not everybody I've asked is the perfect, Humorist, or the perfect joke teller, in a science lecture. But you can, for example, use a slide with a funny picture, or a slide with a joke too, and use this to make your students laugh. My teacher always told me, my professor always told me when I was learning science in university, he told me that once a lecture you have to laugh, otherwise the lecture is lost. I wouldn't say that strictly, but using humor really increases your students' engagement. And this is what we want to do. And what you should is you should vary your presentation style. Varying your presentation style is important insofar as that we know that we have a very limited timeframe where our students can concentrate and they are staying with us. And this timeframe will arise between 10 and 15 minutes. So after maximum 15 minutes, you should change your presentation style and you should change the way you are teaching. This could be done, for example, by implementing a video after 15 minutes, or asking questions after 15 minutes, or giving a quiz after 15 minutes. And one way to do so, one way efficient way to activate your students is that, after 15 minutes you could, you could make a small break. You take a small respite, where students can have a look at their notes and recall what they have learned during the last 15 minutes. Discuss this with their neighbors or discuss this with you, for example. So this allows them to make sense of your lecture and it even increases the transcription of the knowledge into the long term memory. .Activating our students. All right, activating our students, a way to activate our students is to get them into discussion. And getting them into discussion could be, for example, by so-called batch groups. Batch groups we can use when we give a problem to students and ask them to solve this problem based on the knowledge they have learned about in the lecture or in the seminar. And batch groups means that you divide the whole group into smaller groups and they are solving these problems, discussing these problems with each other. And then present it to the whole group again. A variant of this is the idea of think/pair/share, a method I'm often using in my classes. Here I give a problem, students first have to think on their own, then they turn to their neighbor and discuss about it. And then share their ideas in the whole group. This is a process that don't have to be so time-consuming. I'm implementing this for three to five minutes. And after this, I can go on with the lecture. But these three to five minutes are very important and very effective ones. Because students recall the knowledge. They remember the knowledge much better. And they can apply it to different situations. Another way to get your students engaged and activate them is to use quizzes. You can use a quiz at the beginning of your class, for example, to see if they have prepared for class. Or you can use it at the end of class to see if they got what you want them to understand. And using quizzes does not mean that you have to grade them. But you could use these quizzes to check, did they understand what you said? And you could also use this to evaluate yourself to see if your way of teaching was efficient. Another way to activate your students is, for example, let them write some kind of two minute paper, for example. A paper where you give students, at the end of the class, two minutes time and they write down the most important things they learned from your lecture. That gives you some feedback about what was perceived as important. Or you can ask them to apply this knowledge they have learned about to everyday life. Or you can ask them to give an example for the concepts they have learned about. So there's big space to use these two minute papers or to batch groups or think/pair/share, or quizzes. There are different ways to activate your students. Which way and which method you choose depends on the content you are teaching about, depends on the class you are teaching with. But using at least some of them really is a good way to activate your students. And activating your students Is a very, very important thing to really help them for the conceptual change process. To help them in science teaching.