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## Chapter 3 The Time Value of Money

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**Chapter 3 The Time Value of Money** 2005, Pearson Prentice Hall**The Time Value of Money**Compounding and Discounting Single Sums**Today**Future We know that receiving $1 today is worth more than $1 in the future. This is duetoopportunity costs. The opportunity cost of receiving $1 in the future is theinterestwe could have earned if we had received the $1 sooner.**Today**Future ? Today Future ? If we can measure this opportunity cost, we can: • Translate $1 today into its equivalent in the future(compounding). • Translate $1 in the future into its equivalent today(discounting).**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6%, how much would you have in the account after 1 year? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 6 N = 1 PV = -100 FV = $106 PV = -100 FV = 0 1**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6%, how much would you have in the account after 1 year? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 6 N = 1 PV = -100 FV = $106 PV = -100 FV = 106 0 1**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6%, how much would you have in the account after 1 year? Mathematical Solution: FV = PV (FVIF i, n ) FV = 100 (FVIF .06, 1 ) (use FVIF table, or) FV = PV (1 + i)n FV = 100 (1.06)1 = $106 PV = -100 FV = 106 0 1**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6%, how much would you have in the account after 5 years? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 6 N = 5 PV = -100 FV = $133.82 PV = -100 FV = 133.82 0 5**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6%, how much would you have in the account after 5 years? Mathematical Solution: FV = PV (FVIF i, n ) FV = 100 (FVIF .06, 5 ) (use FVIF table, or) FV = PV (1 + i)n FV = 100 (1.06)5 = $133.82 PV = -100 FV = 133.82 0 5**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6% with quarterly compounding, how much would you have in the account after 5 years? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 4 I = 6 N = 20 PV = -100 FV = $134.68 PV = -100 FV = 134.68 0 20**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6% with quarterly compounding, how much would you have in the account after 5 years? Mathematical Solution: FV = PV (FVIF i, n) FV = 100 (FVIF .015, 20) (can’t use FVIF table) FV = PV (1 + i/m) m x n FV = 100 (1.015)20 = $134.68 PV = -100 FV = 134.68 0 20**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6% with monthly compounding, how much would you have in the account after 5 years? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 12 I = 6 N = 60 PV = -100 FV = $134.89 PV = -100 FV = 134.89 0 60**Future Value - single sumsIf you deposit $100 in an account**earning 6% with monthly compounding, how much would you have in the account after 5 years? Mathematical Solution: FV = PV (FVIF i, n) FV = 100 (FVIF .005, 60) (can’t use FVIF table) FV = PV (1 + i/m) m x n FV = 100 (1.005)60 = $134.89 PV = -100 FV = 134.89 0 60**Future Value - continuous compoundingWhat is the FV of**$1,000 earning 8% with continuous compounding, after 100 years? Mathematical Solution: FV = PV (e in) FV = 1000 (e .08x100) = 1000 (e 8) FV = $2,980,957.99 PV = -1000 FV = $2.98m 0 100**PV = -94.34 FV = 100**0 1 Present Value - single sumsIf you receive $100 one year from now, what is the PV of that $100 if your opportunity cost is 6%? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 6 N = 1 FV = 100 PV = -94.34**PV = -94.34 FV = 100**0 1 Present Value - single sumsIf you receive $100 one year from now, what is the PV of that $100 if your opportunity cost is 6%? Mathematical Solution: PV = FV (PVIF i, n ) PV = 100 (PVIF .06, 1 ) (use PVIF table, or) PV = FV / (1 + i)n PV = 100 / (1.06)1 = $94.34**PV = -74.73 FV = 100**0 5 Present Value - single sumsIf you receive $100 five years from now, what is the PV of that $100 if your opportunity cost is 6%? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 6 N = 5 FV = 100 PV = -74.73**PV = -74.73 FV = 100**0 5 Present Value - single sumsIf you receive $100 five years from now, what is the PV of that $100 if your opportunity cost is 6%? Mathematical Solution: PV = FV (PVIF i, n ) PV = 100 (PVIF .06, 5 ) (use PVIF table, or) PV = FV / (1 + i)n PV = 100 / (1.06)5 = $74.73**PV = -362.45 FV = 1000**0 15 Present Value - single sumsWhat is the PV of $1,000 to be received 15 years from now if your opportunity cost is 7%? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 7 N = 15 FV = 1,000 PV = -362.45**PV = -362.45 FV = 1000**0 15 Present Value - single sumsWhat is the PV of $1,000 to be received 15 years from now if your opportunity cost is 7%? Mathematical Solution: PV = FV (PVIF i, n ) PV = 100 (PVIF .07, 15 ) (use PVIF table, or) PV = FV / (1 + i)n PV = 100 / (1.07)15 = $362.45**PV = -5000 FV = 11,933**0 5 Present Value - single sumsIf you sold land for $11,933 that you bought 5 years ago for $5,000, what is your annual rate of return? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 N = 5 PV = -5,000 FV = 11,933 I = 19%**Present Value - single sumsIf you sold land for $11,933 that**you bought 5 years ago for $5,000, what is your annual rate of return? Mathematical Solution: PV = FV (PVIF i, n ) 5,000 = 11,933 (PVIF ?, 5 ) PV = FV / (1 + i)n 5,000 = 11,933 / (1+ i)5 .419 = ((1/ (1+i)5) 2.3866 = (1+i)5 (2.3866)1/5 = (1+i) i = .19**PV = -100 FV = 500**0 ? Present Value - single sumsSuppose you placed $100 in an account that pays 9.6% interest, compounded monthly. How long will it take for your account to grow to $500? Calculator Solution: • P/Y = 12 FV = 500 • I = 9.6 PV = -100 • N = 202 months**Present Value - single sumsSuppose you placed $100 in an**account that pays 9.6% interest, compounded monthly. How long will it take for your account to grow to $500? Mathematical Solution: PV = FV / (1 + i)n 100 = 500 / (1+ .008)N 5 = (1.008)N ln 5 = ln (1.008)N ln 5 = N ln (1.008) 1.60944 = .007968 N N = 202 months**Hint for single sum problems:**• In every single sum present value and future value problem, there are four variables: FV, PV, i and n. • When doing problems, you will be given three variables and you will solve for the fourth variable. • Keeping this in mind makes solving time value problems much easier!**0**1 2 3 4 The Time Value of Money Compounding and Discounting Cash Flow Streams**0**1 2 3 4 Annuities • Annuity: a sequence of equal cash flows, occurring at the end of each period.**Examples of Annuities:**• If you buy a bond, you will receive equal semi-annual coupon interest payments over the life of the bond. • If you borrow money to buy a house or a car, you will pay a stream of equal payments.**Examples of Annuities:**• If you buy a bond, you will receive equal semi-annual coupon interest payments over the life of the bond. • If you borrow money to buy a house or a car, you will pay a stream of equal payments.**0 1 2 3**Future Value - annuityIf you invest $1,000 each year at 8%, how much would you have after 3 years? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 8 N = 3 PMT = -1,000 FV = $3,246.40 1000 1000 1000**0 1 2 3**Future Value - annuityIf you invest $1,000 each year at 8%, how much would you have after 3 years? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 8 N = 3 PMT = -1,000 FV = $3,246.40 1000 1000 1000**Future Value - annuityIf you invest $1,000 each year at 8%,**how much would you have after 3 years? Mathematical Solution: FV = PMT (FVIFA i, n ) FV = 1,000 (FVIFA .08, 3 ) (use FVIFA table, or) FV = PMT (1 + i)n - 1 i FV = 1,000 (1.08)3 - 1 = $3246.40 .08**0 1 2 3**Present Value - annuityWhat is the PV of $1,000 at the end of each of the next 3 years, if the opportunity cost is 8%? Calculator Solution: P/Y = 1 I = 8 N = 3 PMT = -1,000 PV = $2,577.10 1000 1000 1000**Present Value - annuityWhat is the PV of $1,000 at the end**of each of the next 3 years, if the opportunity cost is 8%? Mathematical Solution: PV = PMT (PVIFA i, n ) PV = 1,000 (PVIFA .08, 3 ) (use PVIFA table, or) 1 PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n i 1 PV = 1000 1 - (1.08 )3 = $2,577.10 .08