So the problem we try to analyze is this impact of technology on thinking and the way we think, and we already made some progress. The question was already raised by Google. By Powerpoint by all this. But today there is a new element called big data, big data. And this video the property's the same, the impact on thinking. But we're going to spend one whole video just on the big data. How is big data impacting the way we think? So, interesting question but let's make some comments before. Because some people believe big data is the, going to be the solution to all problems, no, definitely not. Look around you. Lots of things have nothing to do with science. A piece of bread. Or a piano. You don't need science to design those tools or those items. And first of all, part of the future is not made out of technology. That's one. Now, even for. Inventions. Possible with technology, we can have some nuance. And I will explain how through lots of histories. I selected 15 genius. Very different. You have like, Steve Jobs, you have Freud Darwin Mendel, many others. And of course, number 15 is anonymous, because you cannot have everybody. So this one is for everybody who you want. I don't want to see what was the relationship between data. And their ideal. Their ideal. Because first commence, some of them built their ideals not on data, not on data. Steve Jobs again and Freud and Edison. Aristotle, he just next to to Edison. Aristotle. And the others didn't use data. Or Einstein didn't use data to build their concept, their theory. So, it's a good command. So even if the big data, big, big, big is super powerful, some part of theories are not built on data alone. So there's another comment. But now we will spend some times with six of them who really used a lot of data to develop their theories. Let's start with three of them. Mendel, who lived in Turkey. And made a huge invention in terms of genetic. Champollion. Champollion who understand for the first time the nature of the hieroglyph, the Egyptian writing. And Kepler, Kepler who also made progress in astronomy. So let's enter some details. What was the big data of Mendel, something like that. He used thousands of little pieces to try to understand the basic laws of genetics. And finally, he found one rule connected to arithmetic about the way things can keep their characteristics. The second one, Champouillon, Champouillon, He's big data, like this. Writing from different monuments in Egypt, and. And the third one Kepler. Kepler, his big data, the sky, the sky, the sky. But now, let's see the different. Mendel found a love in genetics. Champollion how, Champollion did invent his or find a way to understand hieroglyph. Because you went against the mindset. And I go back to Champollion for a minute. Before Champollion people were trapped in a mindset call or. People were convinced hieroglyph were either ideogram, symbols. Or pictogram images. Either or. No solution. What did Jean Champollion? He broke this hypothesis and suddenly said probably the solution is hieroglyph are made both of pictogram and ideogram. That was the way he open to understanding the, the way it works. Kepler, Kepler is from an, a different kind. He found one, he found three laws. But the first one is planets around the sun, they don't have circle but ellipse. Ellipse. Now imagine, what could have been a big data, a big data. For example Kepler. I think a big data could have find what Kepler found. Why? Because, the ellipse, as a concept existed before. So what Kepler did it was to put together preexisting concept, ellipse with some patterns he saw in the sky. I think machines could do that. And big data could do that. So for Mendel for Champollion and for Kepler I'm convinced. Big data could have do the job. Mark two to three others. Darwin, Charellah and Pacoli. Darwin his big data this. He had the chance to travel the world for five years on a boat called the Beadle. You, between 22 and 27 around the world. Imagine the trip. So, his big data was, I don't know, like tons of papers. And he looked at the sky. He noticed difference between birds and, and turtles and things like. And suddenly, he found his main concept. Survival of the fittest. But the difference with Kepler. Survival of the fittest, for the fittest, didn't exist like the ellipse before Darwin. So I'm convinced Darwin. Couldn't have been replaced by big data. And the same for the two others. Quetelet, Quetelet is a Belgian one. And he, great idea was to use mathematics in sociology, sociology. And the way he see the world. Of peop, the sociology is built on mathematics. I noth, I don't think it could have been replaced by big data. And the last one, Pacioli. Not a famous guy. I'm not sure you know. But surely, what did he find? A new concept. Double-entry accounting. Double-entry accounting. And this is amazing, because accounting, before Pacioli, Pacioli is from the Renaissance. Before Pacioli, how was accounting built? Simple entry. Just plus, minus, minus, plus, plus, minus. Simple entry. And he had, his big data were things like that. And suddenly he has this incredible, good idea. Double entry encounting, accounting. Of course, this required. Twice as much work, and you can imagine the resistance to change. But, it made incredible progress to the way we organize the accounting system. And that's my conviction for the three last example, Therine, Kittlett, and here, Pacioli. Big data was not useful. Even a big data couldn't help. To make a long story short, if you think in big data, use it where it can be useful, but count on yourself to find new concept. Why? Because the key of everything is the concept. I said during lecture two. if you want to conceptualize, you have to forget. The concept of restaurant is born when somebody forgot details of the place where he had lunch. Then you have the concept. There, the only way to conceptualize is to forget. By definition, big data cannot forget, so don't expect any new concept out of big data.