very similar to bar chart.

Okay. How else can we represent the same data?

So, another possible representation is this.

So, we have category one,

category two, category three,

and we have dots like before,

but we connect these dots with lines.

So, that will be the equivalent of a line chart

with the main difference that on the x-axis, we have categories.

We don't have quantities.

Okay, what is the problem with that?

Well, the problem is this that when we have categorical attributes mapped to an axis,

and we visualize this information with a line chart,

the line chart tends to communicate to the reader the idea that these values are ordered.

Not only that, the other problem is that,

a line chart creates a very distinctive pattern,

and we tend to interpret this pattern as meaningful.

But, when we have categorical information or categorical attribute on the x-axis,

this pattern is not really meaningful,

and these data items are not really ordered.

So, they look ordered,

but they are not ordered.

So, that's a very important problem that we have here.

That wouldn't be a particularly appropriate visual representation.

But, again, as I said at the beginning,

the goal here is not necessarily to create effective visual representations,

but just interesting alternatives.

So, let's see how else can we visualize?

Once again, the same information.

So, let me create another axis.

I'll put the three categories here once again.

So, how can we visually

represent the three values that correspond to the three categories?

Well, another way is to use area.

So, we have a few bubbles here.

So, the area of the bubbles represents the value that corresponds to each category.

Okay. So, what is the problem with this one?

Well, I think I can identify a couple of problems here.

So, first of all,

it's much less common to represent the data in this way.

So, you can expect your reader to be less comfortable with this visual representation.

The second problem as we will see later on in the course is

that area size is not as effective in

terms of communicating quantitative information as comparing the length of two bars.

So, comparing the size,

the area of two bubbles is not as effective

as comparing the length and the height of two bars.