An introduction to the Line of Balance based on what we just explained from a linear construction or repetitive construction projects. Let's go with two things. One, is the definition and then the objective. The definition of the Line of Balance is a resource driven scheduling method or tool, the Line of Balance, for a repetitive construction project or, linear construction projects. This is the definition. The main objective for the line of balance, method is finding that acquired construction resources for each repetitive process or activity similar to what I show n the example previously. That the following activities are not interfered with. You want to find the right amount of resources between all the processes to have as much as possible parallel drawing or parallel production rate exactly or approximately the same so they will not be any intersection between the processes or activities, which will cause a stoppage, or ideal situation will stop one of the processes and make cause a repel effect for other processes in the project. That's the main objective and the definition of the Line of Balance. Now, there are six steps when it comes to the line of balance calculations and it's as following. I'm highlighting here 4 and another two in the following slides. 1 is prepare your Logic Diagram which are the production curves. As we hear, we mention to it as lines to highlight the slopes of each production rate of each process in your repetitive construction project. Second is estimate a man hours to complete each activity. The Activity Duration. Third here is to chose a Buffer Time to avoid activity interference or what we refer to as the lag. Number 4, is to calculate required Output Rate based on required project completion rate when we want to finish the project or based on a required production rate for the project itself. And the Output Rate and the calculation, I will extend to you in a minute about the equations. Number 5, is to complete the following table. From the following table, we have a column 1, the activity or the process that we are trying to do further calculations to be able to draw the line of balance for that process or activity. I put that example A, B, C, D, all the way. Column number 2 and 3 it's something that will be given to you by the estimator which is how many man hours per section or per unit on that repetitive construction you would need for activity A, for activity B, activity C and so on. Third is how many men or laborers per team, per gang, that would be needed on each section to perform activity A, to perform activity B and C and so on. Column number 4, to find the theoretical gang size, at the chosen output rate. At the example, I'm going to go through calculations here. Well give you an example, and to show you that the desired output rate, which referred to here as R, and this is the equation for column number 4. R times the man hours per unit, in column number 2, divided by the number of working hour per man per week, which is number of working hours per man, or labor is eight per week. You have five working days, let's assume, per week, then there will be 40 hours as the number of working hours per labor per week. And the R here will be given to you as a desired output or chosen output rate. Column number 5 is to find the actual gang signs. The actual gang signs is a multiple of column number 4. The theoretical gang signs. The actual gang size in column number 5 is Ga = the multiple of G column number 4. Because sometimes from the theoretical gang size you might find 8.4 laborers or 8.5 laborers. So you want to adjust and have a multiple to find how many teams you want in your project on that activity. Now, with column number 6, we want to calculate the actual output rate. [SOUND] We have the chosen output trait that's given to you in the question, which is R. And you have Ga, which is the actual gang size in column number 5, divided by G is the theoretical gang size as at the chosen output rate which we just provide you with the equation. You do the calculations then for Ra which is the actual output rate for column number 6 here. As for call number 7, to find the activity duration for one unit, or one section, and that is as D here is equal to the man hours per unit from column 2, divided by the number of men per gang column 3, times the number of working hours per man per day which is assuming you work eight hours per day. And you do the calculation you find column number 7. Column number 8 is the time from the start to first, I'm sorry, time from start on first unit or section, to the time of start on the last unit or section of the project. And we calculate that by, which you see here, = (n-1). N is the total number of repetitive units or sections. For example, in the beginning of the module, we talked about a road or a linear construction with 13 sections. In this case the total number of repetitive units will be 13, we'll paste here minus one times the following, number of working days per week And which would be five divided by Ra, which is the actual output rate in column number 6. And that will find column number 8. As for the last column, the minimum buffer time, it's also suggested in the beginning of the project to highlight either two weeks, five weeks between each processes in the project or construction activities, or what we refer to as lag.