And also if you combine different gates together,

qubits together, where we have two qubit gates, or something like that.

Then you can generate much more interesting states,

so-called entangled states.

And so, just as an example of that,

if you had a classical computer that had three registers there.

We'll do three registers.

With three registers in a classical computer, you would have one of eight

numbers because you could have 000 or 001 or 010 or 011.

Okay, 2 times 2 times 2.

One of eight numbers.

But in the quantum case, you actually get.

I can do this.

You'll actually get all eight numbers simultaneously in

the computer at the same time.

Again ignore the fact that these are decohering.

These are dropping out of that, for the moment.

So, with just three registers, that's not so impressive.

But if instead you had 300 registers which, you know, a normal,

your iPad or something has millions of registers in it.

But with just 300 quantum registers,

you can encode up to simultaneously 2 to the 300 numbers.

And 2 to the 300 is like 10 to the 100 or something like that and

that's more than the number of particles in the universe.

So even if you were to count every electron,

you've run out of particles before you get to the number of states you could

simultaneously put into into a quantum register.

And, so that's going to enable a tremendous speed-up in solving

certain types of problems.

And, in particular I, I guess the funny way of putting it is

that there's an exponential speed-up on an exponentially

small number of problems because it's not, it's not good for everything.

But for some things, it definitely has a, has a huge, a huge benefit.

>> So, essentially when we do pattern computing say with four processors,

it might get sp, sped up four times.

It might be four times faster.

Essentially what you're saying is with a quantum computer, you could be as fast as,

as you possibly can because its essentially an exponential speed-up.

>> Yeah.

It would be, well, it would be like 2 to the 4 times faster.

>> 2 to the 4 times faster.

So we hear this term called qubits-.

>> Yes.

>> In quantum computing, can you say what it is?

>> Well a qubit is just the term of a quantum bit.

So any, any representation of this two-level system, so bit,

but that can be in superpositions of the two at once.

And so maybe I'll talk about how you might get that physically in a physical

thing, yeah?

So the simplest example maybe is

I guess there are sort of two that are pretty easy.

One is if you from chemistry, you know, there in atoms, there are electrons, and

electrons have these different orbitals.

And so, for example, you could call, if the electron is in it's lowest orbital,

you could call that a zero, and if it's in some excited orbital,

you could call that a one.

And you can put the electron so that it's in a superposition of zero and

one at the same time.

It's in a superposition at both of these locations at the same time.

If that seems really impossible or weird to you, I would say yes, true.

But already the fact that when it was in the zero state the electron was already in

all these different locations around the nucleus at once anyway.

So, in some sense, it's not really any, we've already had the weirdness put in and

now the question is, can we use that to do something?

That's one possible way of getting a, of encoding a cubit.

Another, other things that people have looked at is in superconducting coils,

you can have the current going clockwise being a zero and clock,

counterclockwise being a one.

And then you can get the current of electrons to be both going clockwise and

counterclockwise simultaneously.

I deal with optics a lot and so we can use properties of photons

the one that we often use is the polarization of the photon.

You know, whether that's horizontally or vertically polarized.

Just like you would get with 3D glasses in a movie theater.

And you can make superpositions of, say, horizontal and vertical and

that would give, say, something was diagonal, and so

it's real easy to see how you get those superpositions.

Or if there's superpositions where there's a 90 degree face shift,

then you get circularly polarized light.

And that, that's how the not the IMAX 3D glasses, but the other one, the Real 3D or

whatever, they use circular polarization.

So it's basically, the qubit is basically any

quantum system that can be mapped onto a two dimensional space.