Hello and welcome. In this video, we'll be examining the architecture of the Convolutional Neural Network Model. As previously mentioned, CNN is a type of neural network empowered with some specific hidden layers, including the convolutional layer, the pooling layer, and the fully connected layer. Let's start with the first layer, the convolutional layer. The main purpose of the convolutional layer is to detect different patterns or features from an input image. For example, it's edges. Assume that, you have an image and you want to find the edges from the photo so that you can define a filter which is also called a kernel. Now, if you slide the filter over the image and apply the dot product of the filter to the image pixels, the result would be a new image with all of the edges. That is, applying the filter to the left image will result in the right features that are typically useful for the initial layers of a CNN. In fact, the output is one of the very first primitive feature sets in the hierarchy of features, it is one of the key concepts behind CNNs. Now, the question is, what really happens mathematically when we apply a filter or kernel on an image? This brings us to the convolution process. Convolution is a function that can detect edges, orientations, and small patterns in an image. The convolution operation can be seen as a mathematical function. Imagine that, we have a simple black and white image as you see here. We can convert the image to a matrix of pixels with binary values, where one means a white pixel and zero represents a black pixel. Please keep in mind however, that the most common usage is a value between 0 and 255 for a gray scale image or a three-channel image for a color image. But for now and for the sake of simplicity, let's use zero and one as our values. In this step, we define a filter. It can be any type of filter even a random filter, but let's use the Edge Detector filter for now. Now, let's slide it over the image and then calculate the convolved value for the first slide. Taking the values negative one and one on two adjacent pixels and zero everywhere else for the filter, results in the following image. Now, let's slide the kernel again. It will calculate the second element of our convolved image. We repeat this process to complete the convolved matrix. So in essence, the convolution function is a simple matrix multiplication and in this instance, the result shows us the edges of the image. Now, let's consider a handwritten digit that we want to recognize. We can apply a kernel to it. It is in fact the sum of element-wise multiplication of the kernel matrix and the image matrix as shown on the previous slide. So, we can show the result as convolving a kernel on the image. Applying multiple kernels on one image will result in multiple convolved images. Now you can understand that leveraging different kernels allows us to find different patterns in an image such as edges, curves, and so on. The output of the convolution process is called a feature map. At this point, you might be asking yourself, how do I choose or initialize the proper kernels? Well, typically you initialize the kernels with random values and during the training phase, the values will be updated with optimum values in such a way that the digit is recognized. For example, here is the result of applying eight different kernels on the digit 2. As you can see, each kernel will recognize a particular pattern in the digit. This is the first layer of convolutional deep learning. We can interpret this layer to traditional neural network terminology. The input image can be considered as a matrix that we feed into the neural network through input nodes. For example in this case, the input layer of the network has 28 by 28 nodes. The output of the coevolution process are eight of 28 by 28 neurons. We can assume those as hidden nodes. So what are the weights between the input and hidden nodes? Yes, the eight kernels which are five by five. Now, we need to make a decision as to whether each hidden neuron should be fired or not. So, we have to add activation functions to the neurons. We use ReLu which is short for rectified linear unit as the activation function on top of nodes in the convolution layer. ReLu is a non-linear activation function, which is used to increase the non-linear properties of the decision function. So how can we apply it on a convolution layer? Well, we just go through all outputs of the convolution layer, convolved1, and wherever a negative number occurs we swap it out for a zero. This is called the ReLu activation function. Now, we have gone one step further. In this step, we have to downsample the output images from the ReLu function to reduce the dimensionality of the activate neurons. We use another layer which is called max pooling. Max pooling is an operation that finds the maximum values and simplifies the inputs. In other words, it reduces the number of parameters within the model. In a sense, it turns the low-level data into higher level information. For example, we can select a Window of size of two by two and then select the maximum value for this matrix. That is, if the image is a two-by-two matrix, it would result in one output pixel. Also in this step, we can define strides. A stride dictates the sliding behavior of the max pooling. For example, if we select stride equals 2, the Window will move two pixels every time. Thus, not overlapping. Now, we should have our output matrices but with lower dimensions. For example, 14 by 14. The next layer is the fully connected layer. Fully connected layers take the high-level filtered images from the previous layer. That is, all eight matrices in our case and convert them into a vector. First, each previous layer matrix will be converted to a one-dimensional vector. Then, it will be fully connected to the next hidden layer which usually has a low number of hidden units. We call it fully connected because each node from the previous layer is connected to all the nodes of this layer. It is connected through a weight matrix. We can use ReLu activation again here. Finally, we use softmax to find the class of each digit. Softmax is an activation function that is normally used in classification problems. It generates the probabilities for the output. For example, our model will not be a 100 percent sure that what digit is the number 3. Instead, the answer will be a distribution of probabilities where if the model is right, the three will be assigned the larger probability. That is, softmax can output a multi-class categorical probability distribution. Now, let's put all of these layers together. This chart shows the main layers of a convolutional neural network. As you can see, the whole network generally is doing two tasks: the first part of this network is all about feature learning and extraction, and the second part revolves around classification. If we look at each operation as a building block, we can see that a typical convolutional neural network might look like this diagram. As you can imagine though, a typical CNN architecture for an image classification can be much more complicated. It can be a chain of repeating conv, ReLu, max pool operations. For example, here we see more than one convolutional layer followed by a few fully connected layers. Also, note the effect of each single conv, ReLu, and max pool operations pass through the image. It reduces height and width of the individual image and then it increases the depth of the images. For example, the output of the first convolutional layer is an image of Depth 8 and the output of the second layer is an image of Depth 32. This is very important because using multiple layers, CNN will be able to break down the complex patterns into a series of simpler patterns. If we pass one of the digits through the network, you can see the outputs. In the first convolutional layer, we apply eight kernels of size five by five, then we apply ReLu and max pool. In the second convolutional layer, we use 32 kernels. Again, we apply ReLu and max pool. We connect the outputs to a fully connected layer. Also, we use a second fully connected layer with a lower number of nodes. Finally, we use softmax in the last layer. Now you can imagine that if we use a CNN trained on human faces, the first layers will represent mostly primitive features. For example, the details of each part of the faces, the next layers represent more abstract patterns such as the nose and eyes, with the last layers representing more face-like patterns. Now, let's take a closer look at this architecture and see what happens in the training phase of convolutional neural networks. As mentioned, a CNN is a type of feed forward neural network consisting of multiple layers of neurons. Each neuron in a layer receives some input, processes it, and optionally follows it with a non-linear output using an activation function. So, what is the network going to learn through the training process? It learns the connection between the layers. These are the learnable weights and biases matrices. In fact, the whole network as about a series of dot products between the weight matrices and the input matrix. This means we must first initialize the weights of the network randomly, then we will keep feeding the network with a big data set of images, we then check the output of the network and depending on how far the output is from the expected one, we change or update the weights. We keep repeating this process until it reaches a high accuracy of prediction. Of course, this is a very high level picture of the whole training process. In any case, I hope you've absorbed the main ideas behind CNNs. For a better understanding of Convolutional Neural Networks, I recommend that you run the labs of this module, which will walk you through different layers of CNN. Thanks for watching.